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Log in Registration. Price : Rs. Hist a Ear liatory. Contests St Co. FIsnza Uxwnc, Limited, No. These Gazetteers are important reference books which contain useful information about the physical features, Looking for sex chat Jahli Shahr, socioeconomic and political life of the people of prepartition Punjab. Keeping in view the importance of old District Gazetteers, it has been decided to preserve these valuable documents by getting them reprinted. The re. I hope, this volume will prove useful for the research scholars and general readers who may be interested to learn about the history and life of the people of pre-partition Punjab.
District officers since:annexation Development of the district Arehteological remains History of the Fort 14 ib. Hist a ;leery. Takkavi 01 is Co-operative Societies iia Indebtedness of cultivators. Excise 6 Salt o Income tax d Cesses THE name Ferozepore obviously means the town of Firoz. The Ferozepore District, which has an area of 4, square b General miles according" deseriarea.
Broadly speaking, it is bounded on the north-east by the river Sutlej, which sepaIates it from the Juilundur District, and by the Kapurthala State, the boundary of which does not quite agree with the present position of the river; on the northwest and west by the united stream of the Sutlej and Beas, which divides it from the districts of Lahore and Montgomery ; on the east and south-east by the Ludhiana District and the Native States of Farklkot, Patiala, Nabha, and Jind ; and on the south'and south-west by the 1Iissar.
District and by the territories of Bikaner and Bahawalpur. A permanent boundary with Jullundur, the Kapurthala State, Lahore and Montgomery has been laid down along the course of the Sutlej by various officers between and In conequenee the district boundary no longer coincides with the river. These changes in some degree for the difference between the Survey and the Settlement areas of the district. In shape the district is somewhat like a distorted capital E with the centre bar removed. Were it not for the interposition of the Faridkot State in its midst, the district would form a fairly regular block occupying the left bank of the Sutlej for about miles of its course and extending back from the river to a distance of between 30 and 40 miles.
It is divided into five tahsils, of which Muktsar and Faiilka lie below the Faridkot State, and Zira, Ferozepore, and Moga lie above it. Hist a Jistory. Physical Aspects including Meteorology. There is an outlying group of 38 villages, known as the Mahraj ilaka, a little to the south of the main body of the Moga Tahsil, and in the centre of the same tahsil is a smaller group Chhirak and 5 other villages belonging to the Kalsia State.
The riverside country from about 6 miles below Ferozepore to the southern limit of the Muktsar Tahsil forms the jagir of the Nawab of Mamdot, whose predecessors up to were ruling. The Fazilka Tahsil was added to this district on the reduction of the Sirsa District in November Some leading statistics regarding the district are given in Table I, Part B. The district contains only Looking for sex chat Jahli Shahr towns of more than 10, souls, namely, Ferozepore itself, which with the cantonment had in a population of 50, and Fazilka with a population of 10, The administrative head-quarters are situated at Ferozepore, 44 miles from the right bank of the Sutlej and about the middle of the western border of the district.
Ferozepore stands eighth in order of area and second only to Hissar in cultivated area, and third in order of East Feet above North Town. It comprises 4'3 per cent. The latitude, longitude, and height in feet above the sea of the principal places of the district are shown in the margin. The surface of the district slopes very gently from the north-east towards the south-west at the rate of about 1 feet in the mile.
It is all of an alluvial formation and contains no hills, and 'indeed not a rock or stone. On closer acquaintance it is found to be divided into three broad plateaux raised slightly one above the other, the edges of which, in the form of two broken and shelving banks, run nearly parallel to the course of the river. The highest of these three tracts contains nearly all the Moga Tahsil, a few villages in the south of Zira, the extreme southeast corner, of Feibzepore, and about half of the Muktsar and Fazilka Tahsils.
Its surface is extremely p —igai hys smooth. The soil is a rather sandy loam of a reddish-brown Aspects colour, broken only by the lines of old water-courses along which Meteorology. On the extreme south-east, however, sand-ridges become common, and in places form the V — ptcat main feature of the landscape. The upper or greater bank andset area— which bounds this tract has an elevation of about 15 or 20 feet. Below it is a tract of much more sandy soil having a width of 16 miles in the centre, but tapering off almost to nothing at both its upper and its lower ends.
The Sutlej appears to have run under the foot. In those days it did not meet the Beas River until some point between Bahawalpur and Mahan.
This sandy plain has been overrun by the river in the subsequent interval. This plain comprises the southern half of the Zira Tahsil. It might be called the Mudki plain, from the name of well-known battle-field, which is situated midway in its length. The leading characteristic of this tract is the brackishness of many of the wells, which increases towards the south-west until the water is undrinkable. Below the Mndki plain is the riverside tract, sometimes called the Bet.
Between Zira and the confluence of the Sutlej and Beas the Bet has a width of 12 miles ; elsewhere it is not generally more than about 6 miles wide. Its soil is a dark grey clay termixed with strata of sand. The lower or lesser bank which bounds the Bet is only 4 or 5 feet in height.
Sometimes it is indistinct, so that the characteristic soils of the two tracts—the red sand of the uplands and the dark clay of the lowlands—are :found for a short distance intermingled. In Moga the upper plateau is locally known as the which really means firm land, the term being applied to this Rohi sort of tract as contrasted with the sands of Rajputana.
The Mudki plateau has sometimes been called the lower Rohi. In Mulct. But in Mamdot and elsewhere also the Rithar which is only' relative is applied to the tractterm within the reach of the annual floods of the river, while the Utar in that part of the district is the tract immediately 4 Pint A. Tn local speech Hitbar Aspects y. Kapura plain where it becomes uneven and sandy. Thus inthe Muktsar Tahsil there are two quite distinct; tracts called Rohi, while in the Fazilka Tahsil the Hithar corresponds to what is elsewhere known as the Bet and the Utar is the continuation of the lower Rohi or Mudki plain known in Muktsar as the Hithar and the Rohi is the continuation of both the Muktsar Utar and Rohi.
The central region of the Bet in Mamdot and Fozeore between the Utar and the lower Rohi is often called er pra, which means an elevated or dry tract. This is discernible in places higher up the called the sotara. The Bet country is full of irrigation wells, each surrounded by a clump of trees. The depth to the water level in this tract is generally not more than about 18 feet ; in the Mudki plain it is from 30 to 40 feet.
In the Moga and Muktsar country it commences at about 45 feet, but rapidly sinks to 70 or 80 feet, so that well irrigation is possible only on the north-east margin of this tract. In the Mahraj villages water is Looking for sex chat Jahli Shahr at a depth of feet, and in the further southern parts of Muktsar and Fazilka at not less than feet ; and the cost of sinking a well to this depth is so considerable that wells, even for drinking is found in water, are not found in every village.
Kankar many villages in the Mudki plain, but is not plentiful. The river ran under part of the lower bank about years c Drainage— ago. It then seems to have made a sudden turn to the north, reaching Shahkot in the Jullundur District.
After this some of the water' of the Sutlej returned temporarily to its former bed under the lesser bank and flooded. Brandreth in described the Sukkar as Aspects follows :— including Meteorology.
Notwithstanding its winding course, the banks of the channel are so regularly formed as to have induced many to think it entirely artificial. More probably, however, it was originally a natural water-course, afterwards shaped into a canal. Its breadth is feet. As recently as 40 years ago it is stated that some little water flowed into it, but since then it has remained quite dry. In former days its banks are said to have been fringed with beautiful shishava trees of which now no trace remains.
Could the water be again brought into the channel a very great benefit would result to the country through which it passes ; it is to be feared, however, from the result of recent surveys, that such benefits are unattainable save at great expense, as the bed is so changed as to he unsuitable for the feeding 'of inundation canals. The Sutlej has a fall of about 18 inches in the mile, the d The river winter level of the water being about feet above sea-level at Sutlej. The windings of the stream probably increase its length in the low season by one-third and reduce the slope proportionately.
The volume of water in the Sutlej has sensibly diminished since the opening of the Sirhind Canal at Rupar, and in the cold season it is now easily fordable almost anywhere above the Beas confluence. The water of this river is more turbid than the. Beas, which, from its clearness, has obtained the local name of Nth, meaning blue. This name is also given to the combined stream below the junction. The width of the combined stream is generally about 1, yards when the water is low, but increases to two or three miles during floods ; and the depth and velocity also are, of course, much increased at the same time.
Brandreth, the former Settlement Officer, remarks :— "The changes in the bed of the river are very frequent. Whole villages are constantly washed away in the course of a single season, while new lands are formed elsewhere with the same rapidity. The practice they consider most efficacious is to throw a nuaMser of goats into the stream. Fakirs and Physical Aspects other sacred persons are also sometimes engaged to offer up prayers for the Including same purpose. Since Mr. Brandreth's time the river has generally tended to shift somewhat over to the west.
It has cut to the distance of about a mile into the Lahore District and has left many islands and strips of lowlands deposited on the Ferozepore side. The bell of the river is a soft sand mixed with mud. A surface of dry sand may overlay a bottom of wet mud, often forming very treacherous ground. It is not safe for a horseman to Looking for sex chat Jahli Shahr to cross any of the channels, wet or dry, except along a track formed by the feet of cattle. The river is navigable only by very shallow, flat-bottomed punts, called Chappu.
The larger decked boats of the western rivers, called Beni or Zorak, only rarely come up Looking for sex chat Jahli Shahr far as Ferozepore. The Chappu is only fit for short trips, but will carry 60 or 80 persons, or a proportionate of horses or conveyances, and perhaps maunds of goods. The river is now crossed by the Kaisar-i-Hind railway bridge made in It is 4, feet long, consisting of 27 girders founded upon groups of wells, and has a cart-road above the railway. There is also a second railway bridge above the confluence of the Beas and Sutlej.
This bridge carries the Jullundur Doab Railway across the river and was opened to traffic in A list of ferries is given in Chapter V, Section A. WO Drainage channels. The principal drainage channel is the Sukkar Nala or old course of the Sutlej which has already been described.
The Nala under the Danda also acts as a drainage channel in the part of its course that lies in the lira and. Moga Tahsils. Above the Danda also there are some drainage channels ; the most clearly marked of these is the so-called Moga.Looking for sex chat Jahli Shahr
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